Periodontopathy is an advanced chronic inflammation of the gingiva. It belongs to the most common diseases in general. Due to the presence of bacteria in dental plaque (plaque), inflammation develops which affects the supporting apparatus of the tooth, which is localized around the tooth root, and can also affect the surrounding bones. If left untreated, there can be a visible withdrawal of the gingiva, the teeth become loose or they can be completely lost. The presence of inflammation has an effect on the whole organism, e.g. promotes the development of heart and circulatory diseases as well as diabetes. For that reason, special diagnostics as well as targeted treatment are very important.
ORIGIN, PROGRESSION AND CONSEQUENCES OF GINGIVAL INFLAMMATION
The cause of gingival inflammation is a plaque located on the edge of the gingiva. Certain bacteria that plaque contains release toxic substances to which the body reacts by inflammation. This, together with the existing aggressive bacteria, leads to the destruction of the gingival tissue. Gingival pockets form, one of the signs of which is bleeding gums when brushing teeth. The gingiva may be red and swollen. Often there are no symptoms or they are few, and to a large extent the disease progresses unnoticed. Further formation of plaque also occurs in the formed pockets. If this cause is not removed, it leads to a vicious circle of inflammation. The pockets become deeper and deeper, until the supporting apparatus of the tooth (periodontium) is damaged, and the surrounding bone can even break down. The loss of the supporting apparatus of the tooth is an irreversible process, even with the successful treatment of periodontitis, since the new tissue that the organism builds cannot completely take over the original function. For that reason, if possible, it is necessary to undertake timely treatment. The surface of the inflamed tissue in periodontitis with a large number of affected teeth sometimes reaches the size of the surface of the hand. This directly releases large amounts of substances that cause inflammation, which can pose a risk to the health of the whole organism. In the meantime, it has been discovered that there is a negative impact on diabetes, in which periodontitis usually occurs frequently. The risk of heart and blood vessel diseases such as stroke, as well as the risk of rheumatism and premature birth with the birth of underweight children is significantly increased if there is chronic periodontitis.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE COURSE OF THE DISEASE
The immune system of our organism has a great influence on the inflammatory reaction itself, and thus on the course of the disease. Therefore, the development of periodontitis in addition to plaque can also be contributed by factors that affect or damage the immune system, for example: Smoking General diseases such as diabetes Hereditary factors Overweight, inadequate diet Changes in hormone levels Increased stress It is evident that the patient himself can influence many of these factors and thus improve the course of healing, for example, with thorough oral hygiene and smoking cessation. This also applies to inflammation of the gingiva around dental implants. Thus, for example, smoking is known to be the most important risk factor for implant loss. The course of periodontitis as a disease can be very risky individually. It often occurs in middle to old age and is characterized by a slow, chronic course with occasional exacerbations "at intervals". However, the course can be very aggressive and rapid, and sometimes the disease occurs in young people and young adults. In these cases, it is mainly hereditary factors and infection with particularly aggressive bacteria.
Treatment of periodontitis is carried out for several weeks. Even after the end of the therapy, you should keep in mind that during the whole life there is an increased risk for the recurrence of gingival inflammation. For this reason, regular check-ups are recommended, and plaques that are difficult to access during personal dental hygiene should be mechanically removed again.
INITIAL TREATMENT (HYGIENE PHASE)
The goal of the first treatment is to enable the inflammation of the gingival margin to be calmed in order to prepare the conditions for later effective specific treatment of periodontitis. On that occasion, your dentist also performs professional teeth cleaning, which thoroughly removes all hard and soft deposits that are visible above the edge of the gingiva. In the next two weeks, it is necessary to master special techniques for cleaning the oral cavity and to rinse the oral cavity with disinfectants and thus prepare at home for specific treatment prescribed by your dentist.
SPECIFIC TREATMENT OF PERIODONTOPATHY
An important component of therapy is the removal of plaque from the gingival pockets. The goal is to eliminate bacteria with plaque and toxic substances from the diseased pockets as much as possible. In addition, the disease-altered tissue from the gingival pockets is also removed, in order to provide optimal preconditions for successful treatment. This therapy is performed with special instruments under local anesthesia.